Autistic Disorder Vs Autism Spectrum Disorder – . Although this is still one of my goals, the deeper I step into the literature, I realize that it is much more complex than this. Although it is challenging to obtain accurate statistics, autism often occurs with at least one other mental/health condition (PsychiatryAdvisor). Bipolar is one of the conditions that occur with autism at higher rates (as compared to the general population).
Recent studies suggest that autism and bipolar share genetic links and often run together in families. Other studies have demonstrated genetic links between schizophrenia, bipolar and autism and identified that they share similar genetic expression in the brain (Zeliadt, 2018). They all activate certain genes in the astrocytes – star-shaped brain cells that perform key functions in the central nervous system Gandal et al., 2018.
Autistic Disorder Vs Autism Spectrum Disorder
Similarly, all three conditions suppress genes that help synapses (the connection point between nerve cells in the brain). So neurologically they have similarities (and thus there are many overlapping features of the conditions), and genetically they are linked, which means they are likely to co-occur at higher rates. With this in mind, it can be difficult to distinguish what is an overlap of bipolar and autistic traits in a person, and what is true co-occurrence. Here are some obesity rates from recent studies:
What Are The Main Types Of Autism?
The high level of feature overlap increases the likelihood of misdiagnosis; therefore, it is difficult to know the true prevalence of autism and bipolar co-occurrence. However, based on the genetic link between the two conditions, co-occurrence is more common than in the general population. This makes for particularly murky waters to wade through. Before highlighting the overlapping traits and characteristics, let me first provide a brief overview of bipolar.
Bipolar, like autism, is considered a form of neurodivergence. It is characterized by clear mood swings between mania and depression. Moods can cycle quite quickly or be longer and separate from each other. Some mood episodes will have “mixed features” where they experience both elements of “highs” and “lows” in a single episode or have rapid cycles of highs/lows. Hallucinations may be present during mania. About 2.8-4.4% of the US population will have some form of bipolar in their lifetime (NIH)
If you need a refresher on autism, check out my post, Social Anxiety vs. Autism, where I review the DSM criteria of autism. Here are some of the overlapping functions/features that make it difficult to distinguish between the two:
Autism Spectrum Disorder (asd) — Seattle Anxiety Specialists, Pllc
Witwer and Lecavalier, 2010 found that symptoms associated with “mania” in autistic children aged 7-17 years were manifestations of their autistic traits. Some autistic traits reported in a study of autistic children (7-17) that resemble mania include:
In addition to the overlap in character/symptom expression, we share many common psychosocial risks – from substance abuse to victims to the risk of dying by suicide.
While many clinicians continue to associate self-harm with borderline personality disorder, it is also common in people with bipolar and autism.
What You Need To Know About Autism
For several reasons, it is essential to understand when these conditions come together. The psycho-social risks highlighted above are likely to be exacerbated when both conditions are present. The co-occurrence also has important implications for medicines:
Traditional methods of assessment for bipolar (and other psychiatric disorders) may not be appropriate for autistics; Therefore, someone familiar with autism should be evaluated if possible. On the other hand, many clinicians who are comfortable assessing bipolar are unfamiliar or uncomfortable assessing autism; therefore, autism can not be on their radar (differential list) when for bipolar evaluation. Therefore, it is possible that many people have been diagnosed with bipolar while their autism remains undetected, and some autistics are likely to have been diagnosed with autism while their bipolar remains undetected. And they are probably car drivers
And were misdiagnosed as bipolar. God, this is getting confusing! Alistics who are bipolar are less likely to be misdiagnosed as autistic.
Schizophrenia Or Autism?
If you are a doctor who regularly diagnoses bipolar, you should be familiar with autism and have it on your differential list (given the high genetic overlap between the two conditions). And vice versa; If you are a clinician who regularly evaluates autism, you should become familiar with bipolar.
Consider the presentation of bipolar symptoms. Symptoms of bipolar in an autistic person can be different than when they are manifested in a neurotypical. For example, youth with both tend to show an earlier age of onset of mood symptoms (than youth with only BP) (Borue et al., 2016). Some common manic symptoms for people who have
If you suspect both, the client will likely benefit from pharmaceutical support. Consider close monitoring of all medications used to support the client. Considering the need to manage toxic exposure (for the autistic), and the need to manage the risk of mania (for the bipolar client), it is necessary to have close supervision when starting medication for the person who Accumulations presented. of autism /. Bipolar features. Autism goes together quite often. Although there is undoubtedly characteristic overlap (autistic repetitive behavior can look like OCD compulsions and rituals and vice versa), there is increasing evidence that these conditions are
The Difference Between Pathological Demand Avoidance (pda) And Oppositional Defiant Disorder (odd)
Based on emerging research, there is reason to believe that there are many people with OCD who likely have undiagnosed autism. Therefore, it is definitely still an important conversation for this misdiagnosed series.
Because of the significant overlap, it can be challenging to tease out the difference (and co-occurrence). This increases the risk of being diagnosed with one while the other condition is undiagnosed and untreated/unsupported (Yuhas, 2019).
OCD is characterized by persistent disturbing thoughts, ideas or feelings that cause significant fear and anxiety (obsessions), followed by specific behaviors such as hand washing and door checking (compulsions) to reduce the obsessions. It must affect daily functioning and take up significant parts of a person’s life (one hour) (American Psychiatric Association).
Autism Spectrum Disorder: What’s Changed And Why?
Until recently, OCD was classified as one of the anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common co-occurring conditions among autistics, with as many as 40% of us meeting the criteria for at least one co-occurring anxiety disorder (specific phobia, generalized anxiety, OCD, etc.) (Van Stones). et al.). Following are some recent research findings on co-occurrence:
While the function of symptoms and behaviors differ between the two conditions, there are some overlapping features and characteristics of autism and OCD:
Dar, R., Kahn, D.T., & Carmeli, R. (2012). The relationship between sensory processing, childhood rituals, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Under The Umbrella: Redefining The Spectrum Of Autism
Hazen, E., Reichert, E., Piacentini, J., Miguel, E.C., do Rosario, M.C., Pauls, D., & Geller, D. (2008). Case series: Sensory intolerance as a primary symptom of pediatric OCD.
King B.H., Hollander, E., Sikich, L., McCracken, J.T., Scahill, L., Bregman, J.D., … Ritz, L. (2009). Lack of efficacy of citalopram in children with autism spectrum disorders and high levels of repetitive behavior.
Meier, S. M., Petersen, L., Schendel, D. E., Mattheisen, M., Mortensen, P. B., & Mors, O. (2015). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders: longitudinal and follow-up risk.
Demystifying The Dsm V
Flygare, O., Andersson, E., Ringberg, H., Hellstadius, AC., Edbacken, J., Enander, J., Dahl, M., Aspvall, K., Windh, I., Russell, A. – Cols, D., & Rück, C. (2020). Adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders: a clinical efficacy study.
Murray K, Jassi A, Mataix-Cols D, Barrow F, Krebs G (2015). Psychiatry Res 228 (1): 8-13
Ruzzano, L., Borsboom, D., & Geurts, H.M. (2015). Repetitive behavior in autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: new perspectives from network analysis.
Autistic Disorders Becoming More Common, Need Early Intervention
Van Steensel, F.J., Bögels, S.M., & Perrin, S. (2011). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.
Qiu, T., Chang, C., Li, Y., Qian, L., Xiao, C.Y., Xiao, T., … & Ke, X. (2016). Two-year changes in the development of the caudate nucleus are implicated in restricted repetitive behavior in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders.
Ruta, L., Mugno, D., D’Arrigo, V.G., Vitiello, B., & Mazzone, L. (2010). Obsessive-compulsive features in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.
What Is Autism?
Zike, I., Xu, T., Hong, N., & Veenstra-VanderWeele, J. (2017). Rodent models of obsessive-compulsive disorder: assessment of validity for interpreting emerging neurobiology. Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental difference that affects all aspects of a person’s life. It is characterized by differences in social communication and interaction and by restrictive and repetitive behaviors, actions or interests. Each autistic person has unique strengths and support needs that can vary throughout a person’s life.
The autism spectrum is not a straight line from “less autistic” to “more autistic.” Instead, the term “spectrum” refers to how an autistic person functions in each of these areas:
Every autistic person’s experience of autism is different. An autistic person may have high support needs for their motor skills and executive function, but none for communication. Another may excel in motor function but need some help with social awareness.
Autism Statistics & Facts: How Many People Have Autism?
There are many misconceptions about autism that are harmful and stigmatizing to autistic people. Contrary to common myths, autism is:
Autism Assessment in BC In BC there are publicly funded autism assessments available. They are done through the BC Autism Assessment Network, but reference […]
It can be easy to forget the benefits of autism when faced with so much media that focuses on the negative. But the benefits, no
Bipolar And Autism
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