Public Universities In The United States – “State University” redirects here. For other state universities, see State universities (disambiguation). For national universities, see National universities. For other related uses, see State College.
A state university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state, territory, or federal district. These systems constitute the majority of publicly funded universities in the country.
Public Universities In The United States
State university systems should not be confused with federally funded colleges and universities, where attendance is limited to military personnel and government employees. Members of foreign armies and governments also attended some schools. These schools include the United States Service Academies, Naval Postgraduate Schools, and Military Personnel Colleges.
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A state university system generally means a single legal entity and administration, but may include multiple institutions, each with its own identity as a university. Some states – such as California and Texas – support more than one such system.
State universities receive subsidies from their states. The amount of the subsidy varies from university to university and state to state, but its effect is to reduce tuition costs for students in that state or district below the level of private universities. As more Americans attended college and private tuition rates increased far beyond the rate of inflation, admission to state universities became more competitive.
State university systems were a product of the demand for higher education in the newly formed United States. The tradition of publicly funded state colleges began primarily in the Southern states, where other private educational institutions were already established in the Eastern and Northeastern states. There remains significant debate as to which institution or institutions are the oldest public universities in the United States.
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The University of Georgia is the nation’s first public charter university, created by act of the Georgia General Assembly on January 27, 1785. However, the University of Georgia did not hold classes until 16 years later, in the fall of 1801. The first college-level classes taught by a public institution were at Richmond County Academy, another Georgia institution, which was founded in 1783 with the beginning of education. 1785. Although the academy, later known as Augusta State University and now incorporated into Augusta University, was founded as a high school, it had taught college-level classes since its inception, And its graduates were accepted into four-year colleges in other countries. Or third year. , effectively making it a combination of a modern high school and a community college. The school eventually dropped the high school but remained a community college until becoming a four-year institution in 1963.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, although founded four years after Georgia in 1789, was the first state university to hold classes. Classes at UNC began in 1795 and UNC is the only state university to graduate students in the 18th century. The University of South Carolina was founded in 1801 and classes were first held in 1805. The University of Tennessee was originally founded as Blount College in 1794, but it had a rocky start – only one student graduated – and did not begin receiving promised state funding until 1807, when the University of East Tennessee Established.
In the case of the New Jersey State University System it is even more complicated to determine which state university was “first”. Faced with the embarrassment of being the only state that had not yet established a state university, the New Jersey Legislature decided to start an existing private university as its state university, rather than do so as other states had done. Made from scratch. Rutgers University, formerly a private school affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church, was designated a state university by acts of the legislature in 1945 and 1956. It became a ‘system’ in 1946 with the inclusion of Newark University and The College of the South. In 1950, Jersey became the Newark and Camden campuses of Rutgers, respectively. Rutgers was founded in 1766, nineteen years before the University of Georgia, but it did not become New Jersey’s state university for another 179 years.
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Castleton University in Vermont is the oldest state university in New England, founded in 1787. The University of Vermont (UVM) was founded soon thereafter in 1791. However, neither institution was a “state university” in the modern sense. Tenure lasting several decades. Castleton began as Rutland County Grammar School. The complex did not become an institution of higher education until it became home to the Government Normal School in 1867. Although the school was supported by the state at the time, its premises remained privately owned until 1912. UVM was chartered as a private institution and did not become a public university until 1865. The first institution in New England to truly operate as a public university is Westfield State University in Massachusetts, which has been public since its founding in 1838.
America’s first westward expansion included consideration of public higher education with the North-West Ordinance of 1787, which established the Northwest Territory. It states: “Religion, morality and knowledge, being essential to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and means of instruction shall always be encouraged.” Ohio University (1804) was the first state school established in the region (and is also the oldest state university that continuously operated as a public institution), other developing states similarly created public universities to serve citizens. Are. At the national level, the state university system was also supported by the establishment of land-grant universities under the Morrill Land-Grant College Acts of 1862 and 1890.
A number of state universities were established in the mid-19th century, particularly supported by the Morrill Land-Grant College Acts of 1862 and 1890.
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After World War II, many state universities were merged into smaller institutions to achieve economies of scale in administration and to increase the prestige of the degrees offered by some of the smaller institutions. A notable example of this is the State University of New York, the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the United States.
During the 1970s, new mergers took place and the concept of the state system was widely adopted. Some states have more than one state university system. For example, California has the University of California and California State University as a four-year university system, and the California Community Colleges as a community college system. Texas has several state university systems (one of which currently consists of only one institution) as well as one independent public university.
There is great diversity among states in terms of how governance power is distributed among the board of directors (or trustees), presidents, provosts, provosts, and other senior university officials.
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On one side of the spectrum is the University of California, where each campus has a president as executive director. All Chancellors report to a system-wide President, who in turn reports to a Board of Regents. On the other side is Kansas, where there is no true state university system with a system-wide brand identity and a system-wide executive director empowered to establish uniform policies across multiple campuses and oversee each campus’s executive director. Instead, the Kansas Board of Regents directly oversees the presidents of all Kansas public universities.
There are several states with hybrid intermediate systems, such as Hawaii, Indiana, and South Carolina, where the leader of the state university system maintains direct executive control over the original main campus, but also oversees the leaders of all other campuses in the system. As R. As Bo Loftin points out, this requires a lot of ingenuity on the part of the system-wide leader: “How will other campus leaders see themselves in such a system?”
However, it is common for the main campus to have its own leader, separate from the leader of the entire system.
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Some states maintain a separate system of state colleges (often referred to as community colleges, technical colleges, or junior colleges), separate from their university system. Examples include the California Community College System, the Florida College System, and the Georgia Technical College System. In these states, colleges focus primarily on offering two-year associate degrees and professional certificates, while universities focus on four-year bachelor’s degrees and more advanced degrees.
The meaning of names such as University of California changed over time, as state systems evolved and reorganized. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. Relevant discussions can be found on the talk page. Please help ensure that the statements in question are from a reliable source. (April 2013) (Learn how and whether to remove this message template)
This is a list of land-grant colleges and universities in the United States and its affiliated territories.
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Land grant institutions are often classified as 1862, 1890, and 1994 institutions depending on the date of legislation, with most of them having land grant status.
Of the 106 land-grant institutions, all but two (Community Colleges of Micronesia and College of the Northern Marianas) are members of the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (formerly the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges).
As of 1994 the 31 tribal colleges are represented as a system by single members of the American
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